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Indication for ultrasound:
- Soft tissue shortening (joint contracture, scarring, and adhesions).
- Subacute and chronic inflammation.
- Muscle guarding, sprain/strain, bursitis and tendonitis.
- Tissue healing.
- Edema (swelling) reduction.
- Increased local temperature, metabolism, and blood flow.
- Portion of energy from the ultrasound wave is absorbed into the tissue structure and converted into
- Amount of heating is determined by the frequency and intensity of the ultrasound.
- Decrease local adhesion formation and nerve conduction velocity.
- Increased connective tissue elasticity.
- Mechanical: increase cellular diffusion, membrane permeability, collagen synthesis and break down of soft tissue adhesions.
- Acoustic streaming: physical forces of the sound waves that provide a driving force capable of
displacing ions and small molecules.
- Mechanical pressure applied by the wave produces unidirectional movement of fluid along and around
- Chemical increase in enzyme activity, ATP activity, cell membrane permeability, and tissue repair.
INTERFERENTIAL STIMULATION (E-Stim)
Goals for electrotherapy treatment include:
- Pain relief.
- Decreased edema (swelling).
- Decrease muscle spasm.
- Increased tissue healing and circulation.
- Muscle reeducation.
- Increased range of motion.
Electrotherapy modalities such as Interferential Current have many physiological effects.
- Thermal effect: Heat is developed in all forms of currents.
- Chemical effects: Leads to ionic changes in tissues
- Kinetic effects: Therapeutic muscle stimulation to produce contraction.
- Excitable tissues: Nerves, muscles and glands.
- Analgesic effect (endorphins, enkephalins, dopamines, dymorphins).
- Modulation of visceral activity.
- Muscle group contraction with effects on joint mobility, synergistic muscle activity.
- Muscle pumping action affects macrocirculation.
- Changes in macrocirculation not associated with skeletal muscle contraction.
- Skeletal muscle contractions leads to changes in speed, strength, reaction time and fatigability.
- Smooth muscle contraction/relaxation yields changes in blood flow.
- Tissue regeneration and remodeling.
- Excitation of peripheral nerves.
- Changes of membrane permeability of non-excitatory cells.
- Alterations in cellular metabolism.
- Alterations in microcirculation.